Steve Ballmer earned bachelor’s degrees in mathematics and economics from Harvard in 1977. He attended Stanford’s Graduate School of Business after spending two years as a product manager at Procter & Gamble. He left out of college in 1980 to work with Microsoft co-founder Bill Gates, a Harvard classmate. Following that, Steve Ballmer had a range of positions as Microsoft expanded to become one of the most well-known and successful American companies. Its early success was owed to the dominance of MS/DOS and Windows.
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In 2008, Gates resigned from Microsoft to pursue humanitarian causes, leaving Ballmer as the company’s public face. In 2009, the corporation created Bing, a search engine. Later that year, Microsoft announced a partnership with Yahoo! in which Yahoo! will utilize Bing on its website and manage Microsoft’s premium ads.
Agriculture, forestry, fishing, mining, quarrying, and mineral extraction are all included in this business. It is classified into two industries: genetic and extractive. Human involvement in the manufacturing process may enhance the raw materials used in genetic sectors.
Agriculture, forestry, livestock management, and fisheries rely on renewable resources and are thus genetically modified sectors. Mineral ores are extracted in mines, the stone is mined in quarries, and mineral fuels are extracted. Secondary and tertiary industries increase faster in impoverished and emerging countries than primary industries.
Industry No. 2
This (Steve Ballmer) business either turns raw materials provided by primary industries into consumer products or produces capital goods required to create consumer and non-consumer goods. Energy generation (e.g., hydroelectric) and building are considered secondary industries.
This large sector, commonly referred to as the service industry, encompasses businesses that generate revenue via services or intangible advantages. This industry includes both commercial and public operations.
Professional, consulting, legal, and personal services; tourism, hotels, restaurants, and entertainment; repair and maintenance services; and health, social welfare, administrative, police, security, and defense services are a few of the firms in this sector.
The term “light industry” refers to the manufacture of short-lived goods that need minimal capital expenditure in buildings and equipment. Labor includes:
- Low-skilled work (textiles and clothing).
- Food-skilled work (processing).
- High-skilled work (electronics and computer hardware).
- Precision instrument fabrication (gem cutting).
- Artisan work.
Commerce in the Quaternary Period
The quaternary industry is a subclass of a tertiary sector that focuses on knowledge-based goods and services. As with the tertiary sector, it combines commercial and government activities. This business includes information systems and information technology, research and development, financial and strategic analysis, consulting media and communications technologies and services, and education, providing teaching and educational technology and services.
The rapid commercialization of the Internet was aided by the proliferation of commercial Internet services and applications. Other variables also contributed to this event. Additionally, the growth of Ethernet and other “local area networks” (LANs) for linking computers played an important role. Other factors were also at play. When AT&T reorganized in 1984, the National Science Foundation (NSF) took advantage of new alternatives for its national-level digital backbone service, NSFNET.
The Corporation for National Research Initiatives in the United States got authorization in 1988 to connect a commercial e-mail service (MCI Mail) to the Internet. It was the first established commercial Internet connection outside of the academic community. Additional e-mail service providers were licensed shortly, and the Internet saw its first traffic rush.
Federal law authorized the NSF to commercialize the NSFNET backbone in 1993. Previously, the NSF developed an “authorized use” guideline that confined commercial usage to scientific uses. The NSF recognized that funding special-purpose network services would eventually be less expensive than funding commercially accessible network services.
In 1993, the University of Illinois offered Mosaic, a browser that ran on most computers and enabled file access, retrieval, and display through the Internet, publicly accessible. Tim Berners-Lee invented the World Wide Web’s access protocols and display standards while working at the European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN) (WWW). Microsoft quickly followed the development of the Internet Explorer Web browser (based on Mosaic) and other technologies to allow Internet applications on personal computers. These new economic prospects increased the Internet’s growth, which had already been doubling every year since 1988.
By the late 1990s, over 10,000 Internet service providers (ISPs) worldwide, with the US accounting for more than half of them. For increased connectivity, most of these ISPs depended on access to regional and national ISPs. As the decade concluded, many small to medium-sized ISPs merged or were bought by giant ISPs. By 2000, AOL had surpassed Microsoft as the world’s largest Internet service provider, with operations in Australia, Europe, South America, and Asia. Meanwhile, state-owned ISPs have swiftly surpassed private ISPs in customer numbers in large national markets like China, India, and Indonesia.
Dial-up Customers’ migration to faster broadband connections has persisted. Basic broadband service from phone and cable providers is less costly than dial-up in many areas of the United States. AOL attempted to reinvent itself as a free advertising-supported Internet gateway in the same vein as Yahoo and Google. AOL offers its customers two alternatives for Internet access: pay for an AOL dial-up connection or pay for Internet access from another provider while using many AOL services for free.
With the emergence of video and extensive file-sharing services such as Netflix, ISPs have pushed for the power to tax online content providers or software developers differently based on their Internet use. Net neutrality supporters argue that network providers should be obligated to treat all internet users equally, rather than charging specific customers more for increased bandwidth use (data-carrying capacity). They are astonished that cable and phone companies can afford advanced security and transmission services without charging a premium for them. Meaningful content and software firms favor net neutrality, but ISPs oppose it. Legislative action, on the other hand, will be necessary.
There are two primary categories of software: system software and application software. Because hardware and software are closely intertwined, computers may communicate with other devices. On the other hand, program software guides the computer and includes any application that processes data on the user’s behalf. Word processors, spreadsheets, database management, inventory management, and payroll systems are all examples of application software. Network software, for example, manages communication between computers connected through a network.
Software is often stored on a hard drive or magnetic diskette. When a program is run, the computer reads it from storage and writes it to its random access memory (RAM) (RAM). Running or executing a program refers to storing and then executing instructions. Firmware sometimes referred to as “hard software,” is permanently stored in the read-only memory of a computer (ROM).
The operating system handles a computer’s resources, particularly resource allocation (OS). The CPU, computer memory, file storage, input/output (I/O) devices, and network connections are all examples of typical resources. One of the management jobs is to monitor resource use to minimize software conflicts. In contrast to most programs, an operating system continuously terminates only when the machine is powered off.
Modern multiprocessing operating systems enable the parallel execution of several processes, each executing a program. It lets several users share access to a computer by rapidly switching between them. Most systems use virtual memory, which enables a program’s memory, or “address space,” to be temporarily stored in secondary memory (such as a magnetic hard disc drive) and then restored to main computer memory as necessary. However, it needs strict operating system supervision and a set of allocation tables to keep track of memory use. CPU allocation is the most sensitive and crucial operation for a current operating system; each activity is granted access to the CPU for a limited period before surrendering control and suspending until its next turn. Process switching must maximize CPU utilization while safeguarding all process data.
These devices lacked memory, necessitating the adoption of more compact operating systems. AT&T developed UNIX as a simpler alternative to Multics for massive minicomputers. Linus Torvalds, a Finnish computer science student, and Richard Stallman, an American programmer, developed an open-source version of UNIX that has lately gained popularity on personal computers and more oversized workstations.
The operating system gives access to its objects, such as disc location tables or screen-writing procedures, with or without a keyboard or mouse. Other functional system components may access the operating system’s CPU and memory management methods.
Microsoft published Internet Explorer 1.0 as a Windows 95 add-on in July 1995. By November, the firm had released both Macintosh and Windows 32-bit versions of Internet Explorer 2.0. This version enables VRML, browser cookies (data kept by websites within the user’s browser), and secure socket stacking (SSL). Microsoft quickly improved Internet Explorer due to its popularity and the continuously changing internet world.
Internet Explorer 3.0 was released in August 1996 and included Windows Media Player (a computer graphics package) and GIF (graphics interchange format) files. Internet Explorer 3.0 also supported MIDI (musical instrument digital interface) files. (While new Macintosh versions of Internet Explorer were often released concurrently with Windows releases, Microsoft never abandoned Macintosh support.)
Microsoft included Internet Explorer 3.0 into its Windows operating system, eliminating competition from other browser manufacturers. Following a complaint to the federal government by one of its rivals, Netscape Communications Corporation, Microsoft was sued in May 1998 by twenty states and the District of Columbia for illegal monopolization in violation of the Sherman Antitrust Act. In April 2000, Judge Thomas Jackson declared Microsoft bankrupt. The appeals court reversed the split decision but agreed that Microsoft had an unconstitutional monopoly.