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Bionic Body Transplantation Devices That Breakthrough

As a result of their disabilities, people with disabilities have been missing out on functionality due to bionic parts. Did you know there are bionic organs available for us to utilize? We will look at the evolution of bionic parts, their replacement for “natural” body parts, and so on in this infographic. Below the image is a text version of this infographic (text version is available).

Science has created a wide range of cutting-edge devices for replacing organs, limbs, and other body parts as a result of advancements in medicine and biomechanical engineering. The following list contains some of the most promising bionic body technologies and projects.

Robotic Exoskeleton

In a 3D-printed suit developed by 3D Systems and EksoBionics, paralyzed individuals can regain movement. Known as the Ekso, this bionic exoskeleton aids patients recovering from strokes and serious injuries or treating conditions such as cerebral palsy. Powered by sensors and battery-operated motors, the legs operate to replace the function of the brain and muscles.

Total Artificial Heart

Hundreds of patients awaiting heart transplants have already received a fully artificial heart developed by SynCardia. Battery-powered, the device is self-contained and able to replace all types of wearable electronics. There is no indication that SynCardia is pursuing permanent heart replacement for those who cannot have a transplant.

Prosthetics by Like Life

Using current robotics technology, prosthetics are able to move accurately and mimic natural movements of the human body. There are now 3D-printed prosthetics that have anatomically precise shapes and can be adorned with cosmetic details such as freckles, fingerprints, painted nails, hair, or even tattoos. Losing a limb can be traumatic, but lifelike prosthetics reduce that trauma.

 

Armes you can control with your phone

By programming 24 grips and movements into their smartphones, patients with prosthetic arms can use the i-limb quantum by Touch Bionics. Myoelectric technology enables the robotic appendage to function, which detects minute muscle movements related to the programmed tasks, which are translated into precise actions by a computer in the patient’s hand.

Replacement of ankles and feet

The battery-powered digital ankle and foot prosthesis was created by Hughes Herr, head of the Biomechatronics Group at M.I.T. Media Labs. By combining advanced electronics and biomechanics, the device mimics lifelike motion, allowing users to follow a more natural gait. Using the world’s first bionic foot-and-calf system is the world’s first since 2010, more than 900 patients have benefited, including over 400 war veterans.

Robotic leg controlled by thought

Specifically, the Feinberg School of Medicine and Center for Bionic Medicine are working on an electric leg powered by the power of thought. It previously adjusts the foot’s angle for the wearer during different phases of their stride through algorithms or sensors. During Proprio Foot exercises, the brain sends electrical signals to the Proprio Foot; they are transmitted wirelessly from the neurofeedback sensors embedded in his muscles. Commercialization is planned for 2018.

Arm modularly designed for high mobility

2014 saw the approval of the DEKA Arm System, also known as the Luke arm, after the Star Wars character Luke Skywalker. Powered motions are performed simultaneously by this prosthetic arm, making it the first of its kind. In order to perform complex motor tasks, the device requires signals from what remains of upper limb amputations. As a result of its size and shape, as well as its capabilities, the device can replace a complete arm or a hand and lower arm.

 

Feeling with a Hand

One of the most advanced bionic hands in the world has been designed by the NEBIAS project after a decade of research. Dennis Aabo Sorensen, 7 underarms and with a prosthetic arm, used the device to grasp objects blindfolded and identify what he was touching. The artificial hand provides sensory information to the brain via the neural interface. A nerve-linked prosthesis enables users to control complex hand and finger movements by linking the patient’s nervous system to enhanced sensors integrated into the prosthesis.

Implants for the retina

Argus II retinal prosthesis devices are now being used in more than 100 countries, including the USA and Europe. An epiretinal prosthesis that is surgically implanted in the eye receives images from a camera that is mounted on a pair of glasses. Patients who have lost their sight were able to make out shapes and distinguish between light and dark with this device, even though it could not restore sight completely.

Bionic eyes and robotic exoskeletons will probably become commonplace in the near future. The field of research into bionic parts has advanced rapidly during the past decade thanks to improvements in computer science, shrinking electronic components, and a better understanding of the nervous system. The devices can also help restore normal function – for example, eye implants that allow blind people to see. Others, especially those interested in military technology, focus on making humans stronger, larger, and faster.

Take a look at 5 areas involving bionic human research that are most intriguing to you:

A new type of exoskeleton that helps people walk

A crustacean or insect’s external skeleton is a natural feature. Also being studied is the implementation of exoskeletons for humans. Paralyzed or old individuals can benefit from devices designed to improve their strength. Exoskeletons are also being looked at by the military for making people stronger.

 

ReWalk was approved for medical use by the FDA in June 2014. A remote control allows someone to walk, stand up, or sit using motorized leg braces. An additional backpack contains the ReWalk computer and power supply. A lower-body paralyzed person can use the device. In addition to the Ekso exoskeleton from Ekso Bionics, the HAL series from Cyberdyne is also notable.

The military has played an important role in this field as well. Earlier this year, Ekso Bionics developed the hydraulic-powered HULC (Human Universal Load Carrier), which Lockheed Martin is now making available to soldiers and industries. The HULC, according to Lockheed, can be used by military personnel to carry up to 200 lbs. of heavy equipment for long periods of time without feeling tired. XOS is another suit Raytheon offers.

In addition to US Special Operations Command’s TALOS (Tactical Assault Light Operator Suit), other programs are developing strength suits for military use. According to a US Army statement, TALOS is seeking “a uniform that promises superhuman strength with greater ballistic protection.” Warrior Web, Darpa’s program to develop soft, pliable super suits, is also a bionic part of that effort.

Blind people can see with bionic eyes

While many scientists are seeking to develop bionic eyes, Second Sight received FDA approval for its Argus II implant in 2013. There are more than 2 million people affected by retinitis pigmentosa, a disease that causes blindness. This drug actually gives sight to the blind. In order to restore the eye’s functionality, an array of 60 electrodes is implanted in the eye. The glasses are fitted with a camera that records images of the world. In the next step, a video processor parses the information.

These wirelessly transmitted responses are transmitted to electrode arrays positioned behind the eye, which activate neurons in the back and transmit messages to the brain. To date, the resolution has been limited, and it certainly does not give users a perfect vision. Grayscale resolution is sufficient for people to see any movement, such as a person walking or an object moving, along with lines on a crosswalk. It has even been claimed that a few centimeters tall letters of the alphabet can be recognized.

We are currently working on expanding Second Sight’s reach. On September 15, researchers announced that they would be starting trials to treat people suffering from age-related macular degeneration, which affects some 20 to 25 million people worldwide. Those with cochlear implants – bionic ears – are already wearing them. If that seems a little crazy to you, consider that 300,000 people already do.

The ability to control robot limbs with the mind

The Brain Gate project enables people with paralysis to interact physically with the world through brain implants, making it one of the most impressive examples of bionics research. Signals from the brain are read by 96 electrodes on the implant. Some patients have used the system to accomplish some impressive feats after intensive and long training.

The team showed in a 2006 paper published in Nature that the patient could operate television and move a computer cursor, as well as open simulated emails. Following a 2014 paper showing how two people used a robot hand to pick up things, they published a follow-up in 2012 showing that two people used the system to pick up things with a robot hand. In one case, the patient had the robotic hand for five years and was able to drink coffee with it. Researchers continue to recruit for new trials even today.

Feeling like your body is part of the prosthetic limbs

In recent years, prosthetic limbs have become more intelligent. One example is Touch Bionics’ i-Limb Ultra, an automated hand that can automatically adapt to whatever object someone is grasping or reading muscle signals from an individual’s upper arm to adopt a pre-programmed configuration. Researchers are further working on developing limbs that will be able to communicate with people’s bodies more intuitively.

These sensors can be applied to the skin or even implanted within the body, such as the muscle sensors being used on real people in experimentation with prosthetics. According to Popular Science, James Sides still closes what he thinks is his hand. It’s exactly as if I still have a hand when I open and rotate my hand. I close my fingers and it closes.” Interfacing directly with human nerves and brains would also be a possibility.

 

People have seen that dexterity can be improved by having a feel of what is actually going on with these prosthetics. Research in this area is still in its infancy, but people have seen that they can actually feel what the prosthetics are doing.

Neurostimulation to treat brain disorders

In the past, drugs have been used primarily to treat brain problems, since the brain communicates with chemicals and electricity at the same time. Recent studies have begun to explore brain implants that simulate brain cells with electrical currents. The brain has a pacemaker similar to the heart. The deep-brain stimulation technique is already FDA-approved for treating Parkinson’s disease. It has also been tested to treat psychiatric disorders, such as obsessive-compulsive disorder. One hundred and ten thousand people have received the implant.

The I-limb is manufactured by Touch Bionics, one of the leading companies in the field. Marketing is not the only meaning of the name. The introduction of longer-lasting batteries, smaller, more efficient microprocessors and improved software has driven the electronic revolution in bionics to new heights. Researchers have developed functioning prototypes of artificial organs that can replace the spleen, pancreas, and lungs, in addition to prosthetic limbs, which are more versatile and user-friendly than ever before.

In addition, an experimental implant that gives quadriplegics control over artificial limbs could one day give them complete independence. Our bodies will increasingly be infused with bionic marvels. The ability to replace us is unprecedented. Bionic Man engineers designed several parts to work without a physical body so they could operate as they would without a human body. In addition to the I-limbs, the robot is devoid of a nervous system or brain that would enable it to work.

It is instead possible to control the Bionic Man remotely through a computer and specially designed interface hardware while controlling i-limbs via Bluetooth. Despite this, the robot vividly illustrates how circuits, plastic, and metal can replace certain parts of our bodies. Additionally, Meyer’s face is replicated in silicone on the Bionic Man. Rich Walker, the project’s managing director, reveals that more than half the human body was reconstructed.

Bionic pioneers have been surprised by the level of progress in bionics, even those who worked on artificial organs. While multiple artificial organs haven’t yet been brought together in one body, the case has come to be realistic enough that bioethicists, theologians, and others are reconsidering the question, How much of a human being can be replaced without it being considered a replacement? Some patients judge a device on whether it enhances or interferes with their ability to form relationships with others.

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